Jumroh adalah salah satu ibadah yang termasuk dalam rangkaian ibadah haji. Pada waktu pelaksanaan ibadah ini, sering kali menimbulkan korban akibat sangat banyaknya manusia yang berkumpul pada waktu dan tempat yang sama, serta arus yang beragam arahnya. Keluarga yang ditinggalkan pun lebih sering memantau berita dari tanah suci pada saat jumroh dari pada waktu-waktu ibadah haji lainnya. Mereka khawatir kalau-kalau terjadi apa-apa pada keluarganya.
Walhamdulillah sebagai penyelenggara dan tuan rumah, Saudi Arabia terus menerus berupaya untuk meningkatkan keamanan dan kenyamanan para tamu-tamu Allah dalam menjalankan ibadah kepada-Nya, khususnya haji dan terlebih lagi dalam masalah Jumroh ini. Berikut kami kutip dari paper Dirk Helbing, Anders Johansson, dan Habib Zein Al-Abideen yang mengambil studi kasus mengenai pengaturan bangunan dan arus Jumroh.
Who Did What in Preparation for 1427H (to clarify facts after some inaccurate press reports):
Dr. Keith Still of Crowd Dynamics Ltd. proposed several improvements in the design of the New Jamarat Bridge based on extensive crowd simulations, which go back to the year 2001. In particular, he proposed the dimensions of the new elliptical Jamarah design intended to increase the stoning capacity and to decrease the likelihood of crushing accidents. Dr. Still also made many useful recommendations regarding crowd management and control. Further information on his activities can be found on the webpages of Crowd Dynamics Ltd. Note that Prof. Helbing was NOT involved in any activities concerning the bridge design.
Dr. Hubert Klüpfel and his colleagues of TraffGo GmbH have approved the safety of the New Jamarat Bridge and performed simulations of evacuation scenarios based on a cellular automata pedestrian model. See The simulation of crowd dynamics at very large events
Dr. Erfan Qasimi developed a computer program based on the commercial software GAMS in order to optimize the scheduling program. Apart from a time schedule for each pilgrim group, his software also proposed one of several alternative routes to the Jamarat Bridge and back. In the past, however, a simpler scheduling program had been used.
Dr. Dirk Serwill of IVV Engineers developed an improved organization of the Jamarat plaza and the surrounding that complied with previous expert proposals, including the separation of different flow directions, the separation of pilgrim from vehicle flows, and the reservation of space for emergency operations. He also developed operational plans for cases of incidents.
The new one-way organization of the streets close to the Jamarat plaza posed the problem how to bring pilgrims to the Jamarat Bridge who had used routes 2 or 7 in previous years. Prof. Dr. Knut Haase of TU Dresden, in collaboration with Dr. Erfan Qasimi, developed a scheduling program distinguishing routes to and from the Jamarat Bridge. He also considered different bottlenecks such as the various entrances to the Jamarat Bridge, and he took into account the movement times to the Jamarat Bridge. The result was a good balance of pilgrim flows in space and time, considering the available data and boundary conditions.
Prof. Bernhard Schlag of TU Dresden and his collaborators developed an improved awareness program for pilgrims.
Anders Johansson of TU Dresden developed a software to count pilgrims and evaluate the spatio-temporal dynamics in the crowd. This was the precondition for the analysis of the dynamics of the crowd disaster in 1426H.
Prof. Dirk Helbing of TU Dresden noticed that the shock waves in dense crowds had features of turbulence and earthquakes. He also recognized the transitions from laminar to stop-and-go and turbulent flows and identified the variables controlling these transitions. Furthermore, he was involved in most of the above mentioned activities as an independent expert. In particularly, he helped pushing through the one-way design that operated so smoothly in 1427H.
Dr. Habib Al Abideen, together with Salim Al Bosta, have been involved in most activities as well. They have, in fact, managed the whole project. In particular, they have provided the video recordings and pushed many of the research activities.
Note that external expert recommendations are never implemented completely or exactly. It’s a matter of (sometimes last-minute) political decisions, which recommendations are given what priority, and which are dropped. In the end, it is always Saudi expert teams, who make independent recommendations and the final implementation. External experts have no influence on this. For this reason, international experts do not have and cannot accept responsibility for the outcome.
Also note that the preparations for 1428H will need to differ from the ones for 1427H, as the construction stage of the Jamarat Bridge and other facts will change. The team preparing for next year will change as well, since professors are busy people driven by scientific challenges, while consultancy provides different kinds of challenges. Furthermore, we warn to directly transfer solutions from one place to another without considering the particularities. It is rather recommended to consult experts such as IVV Engineers or Crowd Dynamics Ltd., who have collected experience with the organization of many large crowd events.
Sumber: Supplementary Information to the paper The Dynamics of Crowd Disasters: An Empirical Study by: Dirk Helbing, Anders Johansson, and Habib Zein Al-Abideen.